My fault, my failure, is not in the passions I have, but in my lack of control of them.

Cut Like A Diamond

Fien Cuypers by Charlie De Keersmaecker for Ones To Watch

June 2014

brad-t:

Kazuyuki Kumagai Attachment FW2014 Guidi boots

brad-t:

Kazuyuki Kumagai Attachment FW2014 Guidi boots

How Exercise Helps Us Tolerate Pain

For some time, scientists have known that strenuous exercise briefly and acutely dulls pain. As muscles begin to ache during a prolonged workout, scientists have found, the body typically releases natural opiates, such as endorphins, and other substances that can slightly dampen the discomfort. This effect, which scientists refer to as exercise-induced hypoalgesia, usually begins during the workout and lingers for perhaps 20 or 30 minutes afterward.

But whether exercise alters the body’s response to pain over the long term and, more pressing for most of us, whether such changes will develop if people engage in moderate, less draining workouts, have been unclear.

So for the new study, which was published this month in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, researchers at the University of New South Wales and Neuroscience Research Australia, both in Sydney, recruited 12 young and healthy but inactive adults who expressed interest in exercising, and another 12 who were similar in age and activity levels but preferred not to exercise. They then brought all of them into the lab to determine how they reacted to pain.

Pain response is highly individual and depends on our pain threshold, which is the point at which we start to feel pain, and pain tolerance, or the amount of time that we can withstand the aching, before we cease doing whatever is causing it.

In the new study, the scientists measured pain thresholds by using a probe that, applied to a person’s arm, exerts increasing pressure against the skin. The volunteers were told to say “stop” when that pressure segued from being unpleasant to painful, breaching their pain threshold.

The researchers determined pain tolerance more elaborately, by strapping a blood pressure cuff to volunteers’ upper arms and progressively tightening it as the volunteers tightly gripped and squeezed a special testing device in their fists. This activity is not fun, as anyone who has worn a blood pressure cuff can imagine, but the volunteers were encouraged to continue squeezing the device for as long as possible, a period of time representing their baseline pain tolerance.

Then the volunteers who had said that they would like to begin exercising did so, undertaking a program of moderate stationary bicycling for 30 minutes, three times a week, for six weeks. In the process, the volunteers became more fit, with their aerobic capacity and cycling workloads increasing each week, although some improved more than others.

The other volunteers continued with their lives as they had before the study began.

After six weeks, all of the volunteers returned to the lab, and their pain thresholds and pain tolerances were retested. Unsurprisingly, the volunteers in the control group showed no changes in their responses to pain.

But the volunteers in the exercise group displayed substantially greater ability to withstand pain. Their pain thresholds had not changed; they began to feel pain at the same point they had before. But their tolerance had risen. They continued with the unpleasant gripping activity much longer than before. Those volunteers whose fitness had increased the most also showed the greatest increase in pain tolerance.

“To me,” said Matthew Jones, a researcher at the University of New South Wales who led the study, the results “suggest that the participants who exercised had become more stoical and perhaps did not find the pain as threatening after exercise training, even though it still hurt as much,” an idea that fits with entrenched, anecdotal beliefs about the physical fortitude of athletes.

Because it did not examine physiological effects apart from pain response, however, the study cannot explain just how exercise alters our experience of pain, although it contains hints. Pain thresholds and tolerances were tested using people’s arms, Mr. Jones pointed out, while the exercisers trained primarily their legs. Because the changes in pain response were evident in the exercisers’ upper bodies, the findings intimate that “something occurring in the brain was probably responsible for the change” in pain thresholds, Mr. Jones said.

The study’s implications are considerable, Mr. Jones says. Most obviously, he said, the results remind us that the longer we stick with an exercise program, the less physically discomfiting it will feel, even if we increase our efforts, as did the cyclists here. The brain begins to accept that we are tougher than it had thought, and it allows us to continue longer although the pain itself has not lessened.

The study also could be meaningful for people struggling with chronic pain, Mr. Jones said. Although anyone in this situation should consult a doctor before starting to exercise, he said, the experiment suggests that moderate amounts of exercise can change people’s perception of their pain and help them, he said “to be able to better perform activities of daily living.”

(Source: The New York Times)

JIL SANDER FW 2014

JIL SANDER FW 2014

(Source: gaptoothbitch)

Do Narcissists Know They’re Narcissists?

Here’s the question in full:

To what extent do you agree with this statement: I am a narcissist? (Note: The word ‘narcissist’ means egotistical, self-focused, and vain.) Answer on a scale from 1 (not very true of me) to 7 (very true of me).

According to psychologists Sara Konrath and colleagues, complex personality tests and lengthy questionnaires may not be necessary, because that single question does a pretty good job.

In several experiments, they report that endorsement of “I am a narcissist” – which they rather grandly call the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS) – correlates pretty well with scores on the much longer Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) scale (with a correlation coefficient r=0.4-0.45) and has a good test-retest reliability (r=0.8), amongst other things.

This is neat. However… it’s not all that surprising. The fact that a single question can correlate pretty well with a much longer scale is not surprising. This is a general property of personality questionnaires, as explained in Tal Yarkoni’s paper The Abbreviation of Personality, or how to Measure 200 Personality Scales with 200 Items.

This undermines the idea that this new result is somehow special to narcissism – a claim that the authors don’t make, but that outlets like Time, in their coverage of this study, did

It’s not easy to diagnose most personality disorders. But narcissism is a snap – since the narcissists themselves know who they are.

Furthermore, can we be sure that a question like this is even measuring narcissism, given that it is entirely self-report? In their Discussion, Konrath et al say that

We recognize that some readers may be skeptical… are people really aware of their own levels of narcissism? We would argue that, based on the evidence from the current studies, people who are willing to admit that they are relatively more narcissistic than others, actually are.

However, the bulk of their data – 9 out of the 11 sub-studies – can say nothing about how people ‘actually are’ because it compares the self-report SINS to other self-report measures. While such studies are valuable, by their nature they can’t go beyond establishing that the SINS can measure how narcissistic people say they are.

Two of the sub-studies did however examine whether the SINS predicted performance on a behavioral measure. Study 5 examined the degree to which participants exhibited aggression after suffering a blow to their ego – being told that they had performed badly on an intelligence test. The idea is that narcissists would show more aggression. However, the SINS did not predict total aggression on this task (p=0.62). There was a marginal p=0.05 effect in a subgroup analysis, but the authors rightly say that “caution is warranted in interpreting these results.”

Study 11 provided more solid evidence that narcissism is associated with what might be described as spiteful responses to ego threat -  giving a (fictional) student a low grade after being primed with negative words. However, this is only one aspect of narcissism.

In my view, while Konrath et al have created a single question that performs remarkably well within the sphere of self-report measures, I remain to be convinced that it is a good measure of whether someone ‘really’ is a narcissist (if indeed this is a meaningful concept). Then again, the same could be said of most self-report questionnaires.

(Source: blogs.discovermagazine.com)

YOHJI YAMAMOTO FEMME COLLECTION F/W 2014

descroissants:

The Devil, Probably (1977), dir. Robert Bresson

descroissants:

The Devil, Probably (1977), dir. Robert Bresson

… all of a sudden you find yourself noticing that autumn has begun weaving itself into the rhythm of your days. The sun is still just as strong as before, but the breeze blowing in off the sea has turned just the tiniest bit softer, and the sand has cooled. Now the rain that quietly drenches the boats ranged along the beach carries the damp, misty smell of a cloudy sky. You realize that summer has turned its back on you.
Going to narrow down some recipes and cook this up proper.

Going to narrow down some recipes and cook this up proper.

sirui:

mariomendez74:

Yohji on his gym

amazing

When does the album drop?

sirui:

mariomendez74:

Yohji on his gym

amazing

When does the album drop?

Seven Samurai or Wings of Desire?

yes that’s the one

yes that’s the one

If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality.

laserfaceart said: Do you know the actual piece name for the bullet proof vest from raf 05? Ive been hunting for it.

No I don’t believe there’s a specific name for it.

Though in my opinion, I think the Lang iteration of the bulletproof vest is superior!

But good luck!